Sweat-sensing medical devices are revolutionizing the way we can detect disease and monitor our health. By understanding sweat production and analyzing biomarkers captured in sweat, these devices can be groundbreaking technologies that challenge the way we monitor our health and allow the body to work synergistically with wearable biotechnology. assessed during the preclinical stage, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions.
This article will discuss how these medical devices and their biomaterials can be assessed during the preclinical stage in mice and other animal models. We will also explore the potential of these devices in the clinical setting and which companies are leading the way in sweat sensors. Ultimately, this article will help readers unravel the preclinical potential of sweat-sensing medical devices.
What is Sweat?
Sweat, also known as perspiration or hydrolytic fluid, is a clear, odorless liquid secreted from the eccrine glands located across the body. This biofluid helps to regulate temperature, cool the body and it is composed of electrolytes and metabolites. Eccrine glands are the primary sweat glands in the body and are responsible for producing sweat with sweat rates varying between individuals. Sweat analysis via a sweat sensor can measure the amount of sweat produced and help to detect and measure biomarkers such as lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium, and metabolites that may be disproportionately secreted in sweat under different pathophysiological conditions.
How do sweat biosensors work?
Sweat sensors work in two stages: the recognition stage and the transduction stage. During the recognition stage, the biosensor recognizes the sweat and identifies its components. This is usually done through an electrically driven process. During the transduction stage, the sensor uses chemical, electrical, or optical signals to measure the sweat components, such as glucose, sodium, potassium, and metabolites.
The sweat produced by animals can be used to measure the same components found in human sweat, such as glucose, sodium, potassium, and lactate. The molecular composition of the sweat produced by animals and humans is similar, and this similarity helps scientists assess the preclinical potential of sweat-sensing medical devices. Companies like Persperion Diagnostics Inc. founded in 2022 raised nearly $4M in seed round of funding and have been on the cutting-edge developing non-invasive sweat-sensor technology.
Do Mice Sweat?
The evolution of sweat glands did not skip rodents. In fact, mice regulate their body temperature through their little paws. The rodent food pad has eccrine sweat glands that allow them to thermoregulate and secrete water and salts in response to different stimuli. Sweat production in animals is an important indicator of their physiological state. Studies have shown that mouse sweat is like human sweat in terms of composition and rate, making it an ideal model for preclinical testing of sweat-sensing medical devices and wearable biotechnology.
Sweat, Disease, and Clinical Applications of Wearable Biosensors
Sweat sensors have the potential to measure glucose, sodium, potassium, lactate, and metabolites in the body. This potential allows for the detection of various diseases like cystic fibrosis, diabetes, heart failure, and ischemia. In addition, sweat can be used to monitor the effectiveness of regulating drugs. Sweat analysis can be done with a series of sensors that measure the concentrations of different biomarkers. These biomarkers can be used to detect the presence of certain diseases, making sweat an invaluable tool. Sweat biomarkers can be used to track changes in the body and give early indications of the need for self-care to disease progression. With this information, patients take control of their health and support medical professionals who take proactive steps to combat the illness and improve a patient’s outcome.
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