Radial Arm Maze


Explore advanced spatial cognition studies with our Radial Arm Maze, a sophisticated apparatus tailored for research in rodent behavior. Designed for spatial working memory assessments, this maze features eight arms radiating from a central hub, allowing for strategic investigation of cognitive processes. Employing principles of reference and working memory, our Radial Arm Maze is an indispensable tool to unravel intricate neural mechanisms governing spatial learning in rats and mice.

The Radial Arm Maze, a staple in cognitive neuroscience, offers a sophisticated platform for investigating spatial learning, memory, and decision-making processes in rodents. This guide unveils the fundamental components and methodology required to harness the potential of this maze for insightful research outcomes.

Radial Arm Maze Dimensions

The dimensions of a Radial Arm Maze and the materials needed to complete the assay can vary depending on the specific design and research requirements. However, here are the general guidelines for dimensions and materials:

  • Number of Arms: A standard Radial Arm Maze typically has eight arms extending radially from a central hub. However, variations with more or fewer arms are possible, depending on experimental goals.
  • Arm Length: The length of each arm is usually around 60 to 80 centimeters (approximately 24 to 31 inches). Longer arms may be used for more complex spatial tasks.
  • Arm Width: The width of the arms is typically between 10 to 15 centimeters (about 4 to 6 inches), providing enough space for the rodent to navigate without overcrowding.
  • Central Hub: The central hub is the starting point for the rodent and is designed to allow access to all arms. Its dimensions can vary but are often square-shaped, measuring approximately 30 to 40 centimeters (about 12 to 16 inches) on each side.
  • Elevation: The arms and central hub are usually elevated above the ground at a height of about 50 to 70 centimeters (approximately 20 to 28 inches) to prevent rodents from escaping or jumping out.

Materials for the Radial Arm Maze Assay

  • Radial Arm Maze: Order our Radial Arm Maze constructed from durable and easy-to-clean materials.
  • Rewards: Place rewards at the end of each arm to motivate the rodent’s exploration and learning. Common rewards include food pellets or treats, which can be securely attached to designated reward sites.
  • Start Location: Ensure you have a designated starting point in the central hub, often marked by a clear platform where the rodent begins each trial.
  • Video Cameras: Install video cameras at strategic positions to record the rodent’s movements and behavior within the maze. Multiple camera angles may be needed for comprehensive data collection.
  • Video Recording Equipment: Set up video recording equipment, including cameras, lighting, and a recording system to capture and store behavioral data during the experiments.
  • OPTIONAL – Data Analysis Software: After the experiment, use data analysis software to analyze the collected behavioral data and assess spatial learning, memory, and decision-making performance.
  • Cleaning Supplies: Have cleaning supplies on hand to maintain the cleanliness of the maze between trials, ensuring the removal of any residual odors that could affect rodent behavior.

Preparing the Maze

Before commencing experiments, ensure the Radial Arm Maze is clean and free from any lingering odors or residues that might affect rodent behavior. Place the maze in a controlled environment with consistent lighting, temperature, and minimal noise to maintain test reliability.

Animal Selection and Habituation

Carefully select rodents suitable for your research objectives, considering factors such as age, strain, and genetic background. Allow them to acclimate to the testing room to reduce stress and anxiety levels. Gradual habituation to the maze environment is vital, as it minimizes initial apprehension and novelty-induced stress.

Conducting the Experiment

Initiate the experiment by placing the rodent in the central hub and allowing it to explore the arms freely. Researchers typically employ two primary Radial Arm Maze paradigms:

  1. Working Memory Task: In this paradigm, researchers aim to assess the rodent’s ability to remember which arms have been visited and where rewards have been obtained during a single trial.
  2. Reference Memory Task: In this paradigm, the rodent’s ability to remember the fixed locations of rewards across multiple trials is evaluated. Researchers assess whether the rodent learns a consistent strategy for obtaining rewards.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Post-experiment, analyze the collected data to evaluate the rodent’s performance in terms of spatial learning, memory, and decision-making. Interpret the results within the context of your research objectives, drawing conclusions regarding cognitive processes and behavior.

Behavioral Parameters Measured with the Radial Arm Maze

The Radial Arm Maze is a versatile tool for studying various aspects of spatial learning and memory in rodents. Several behavioral parameters can be analyzed using this maze, including:

  1. Correct Arm Entries: The number of arms entered correctly without revisits to the same arm within a single trial. This parameter assesses the rodent’s ability to remember and navigate to unvisited arms.
  2. Errors: The number of incorrect arm entries within a trial. Errors indicate memory lapses or difficulty in selecting the correct arms.
  3. Working Memory Errors: Errors made within a trial (e.g., entering an arm that has already been visited during the same trial). This parameter evaluates short-term memory and working memory.
  4. Reference Memory Errors: Errors made across multiple trials (e.g., repeatedly entering the same incorrect arm in different trials). It assesses long-term memory and the ability to learn and remember a consistent strategy.
  5. Time Spent in Arms: The amount of time the rodent spends in each arm. Analyzing time spent in different arms can reveal preferences or aversions to specific locations.
  6. Latency: The time taken by the rodent to enter all the arms or reach a reward site. It provides insights into the speed of spatial learning and navigation.
  7. Arm Preference: The frequency of entries into each arm. It helps identify any bias or preferences for specific arms or locations within the maze.
  8. Revisits: The number of revisits to the same arm within a single trial. Revisits can indicate difficulty in remembering visited arms.
  9. Order of Arm Visits: The sequence in which the rodent enters different arms during a trial. Analyzing the order of arm visits can provide insights into spatial strategies and memory recall.
  10. Entries into Baited vs. Unbaited Arms: Comparing the number of entries into arms with rewards (baited arms) versus arms without rewards (unbaited arms) can assess the rodent’s ability to discriminate and remember rewarded locations.
  11.  Alternation Behavior: Measuring whether the rodent alternates between left and right arms or between different sets of arms within consecutive trials. Alternation behavior assesses the ability to adapt and avoid repetitive choices.
  12. Return Errors: Errors that occur when the rodent returns to an arm it has already visited in the same trial. Return errors indicate memory deficits or perseveration behavior.
  13. Working Memory Index: Calculated as the difference between the number of correct choices and working memory errors, this index reflects the rodent’s ability to maintain and update information in short-term memory.
  14. Reference Memory Index: Calculated as the difference between the number of correct choices and reference memory errors, this index assesses the rodent’s ability to form and retain long-term memory for a consistent strategy.

Implications of the Results from the Radial Arm Maze

The behavioral parameters assessed in Radial Arm Maze experiments are highly relevant to pharmaceutical interventions for drug treatments of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Here’s how these parameters can provide valuable insights into drug efficacy and potential treatments:

  1. Correct Arm Entries and Errors: These parameters directly reflect the rodent’s ability to learn and remember the correct spatial strategy. Pharmaceutical interventions that improve cognitive function should ideally lead to an increase in correct arm entries and a decrease in errors, demonstrating enhanced memory and spatial learning.
  2. Working Memory and Reference Memory Errors: By distinguishing between working memory errors (short-term memory lapses) and reference memory errors (long-term memory deficits), researchers can assess the specific cognitive domains affected by pharmaceutical interventions. Drugs targeting cognitive dysfunction should ideally reduce both types of errors.
  3. Latency: Reduced latency in navigating the maze can indicate improved cognitive processing and memory recall. Pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive function may lead to faster maze completion times.
  4. Arm Preference and Revisits: Changes in arm preference and revisits can indicate alterations in spatial strategies and memory consolidation. Pharmaceuticals may influence these parameters by promoting more efficient spatial learning and reducing revisits to incorrect arms.
  5. Alternation Behavior: Enhancing alternation behavior signifies the rodent’s ability to adapt and make non-repetitive choices, a critical aspect of cognitive flexibility. Drugs aiming to improve cognitive function should promote higher rates of alternation.
  6. Return Errors: Reduction in return errors demonstrates improved memory recall and reduced perseveration behavior. Pharmaceutical interventions may mitigate return errors by enhancing the ability to avoid revisiting arms in the same trial.
  7. Working Memory and Reference Memory Index: These indices provide a summarized measure of the rodent’s overall cognitive performance. Improvements in these indices after pharmaceutical intervention indicate enhanced working and reference memory, crucial components of cognitive function.

The relevance of these parameters lies in their ability to serve as sensitive indicators of cognitive dysfunction and the effectiveness of drug treatments. Pharmaceutical interventions for cognitive dysfunction and dementia often aim to enhance memory, learning, and cognitive flexibility while reducing memory deficits and errors. The Radial Arm Maze, with its ability to assess these specific aspects of cognition, provides a valuable tool for evaluating the impact of drug treatments on cognitive performance. Researchers can use these behavioral parameters to measure the efficacy of potential therapies, inform dosage adjustments, and identify promising drug candidates for further development.


  1. Penley, S. C., Gaudet, C. M., & Threlkeld, S. W. (2013). Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injuryJournal of visualized experiments: JoVE, (82), 50940. doi:10.3791/50940.
  2. Braun, J. M., Lucchini, R., Bellinger, D. C., Hoffman, E., Nazzaro, M., Smith, D. R., & Wright, R. O. (2012). Predictors of virtual radial arm maze performance in adolescent Italian childrenNeurotoxicology33(5), 1203–1211. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2012.06.012.
  3. Bird, C. M., & Burgess, N. (2009). Spatial Memory: Assessment in AnimalsEncyclopedia of Neuroscience, 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045046-9.00288-6

Additional information

Weight 50 lbs
Dimensions 40 × 40 × 40 in

Mouse, Rat



Maze Type

Elevated, Enclosed


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